5 ago. 2011

Sigheru Ban: disaster relief projects



PAPER LOG HOUSES - Kobe, Japan, 1995 
紙のログハウス-神戸-1995

 The foundation consists of donated beer crates loaded with sandbags. The walls are made from 106mm diameter, 4mm thick paper tubes, with tenting material for the roof. The 1.8m space between houses was used as a common area. For insulation, a waterproof sponge tape backed with adhesive is sandwiched between the paper tubes of the walls. The cost of materials for one 52 square meter unit is below $2000. The unit are easy to dismantle, and the materials easily disposed or recycled.
 

阪神大震災の被災者のためにつくられた仮設の紙のログハウ ス。安価で誰でも簡単に組み立てられ、夏冬の断熱性能を有するよう設計が進められた。基礎には砂袋入りのビールケース、壁と小屋組は紙管、天井と屋根にテ ント膜を使用している。コストを抑えるとともに、解体しやすさ、残材の処分、リサイクルコストの面でも優れたものとなっている。






PAPER CHURCH - Kobe, Japan, 1995-2005 (disassembled) 紙の教会


This community center was built by church volunteers whose house of worship was destroyed by Kobe earthquake in 1995. Materials were donated by a number of companies, and construction was completed in only five weeks by the 160 volunteers. The plan(10 x 15m) is enclosed within a skin of corrugated, polycarbonate sheeting. Within this, 58 paper tubes (325mm in diameter, 14.8mm thick, and 5m high), were placed in an elliptical pattern. The eclipse is based on those in Bernini’s church designs, and the space between the eclipse and the outer edge of rectangular-shaped site formed a corridor and provided lateral support. At the entrance to the eclipse, the spacing of the paper tubes was widened, and the facade fully glazed to form a continuous, unified space between the interior and exterior.This church was disassembled in June 2005 and all the materials were sent to a city in Taiwan.

  阪神大震災により焼失した教会のために建てられた紙の建築によるコミュニ ティーホール。建材は各企業からの寄付を受け、160人以上のボランティアの手により5週間で完成した。建設10年を迎えた紙の教会は、神戸と同じように 震災の被害を受けた台湾に移築され、地域のコミュニティーセンターとして新たに活用されている






PAPER EMERGENCY SHELTERS FOR UNHCR - Byumba Refugee Camp, Rwanda, 1999 国連難民高等弁務官事務所用の紙のシェルター



More than 2 million people became homeless when civil war broke out in Rwanda in 1994. The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) normally supplied plastic sheets and aluminum poles to be rigged as temporary shelters. Rwandan refugees would sell the aluminum poles and then proceed to cut down trees to use branches for structural support. Contributing to already critical deforestation, it was obvious that alternative materials had to be found. A low-cost alternative, paper tubes, was introduced. The proposal was adopted and development of prototype shelters began.
Three prototype shelters were designed and tested for durability, assessed for cost and termite-resistance. Since paper tubes can be manufactured cheaply and by small and simple machinery, the potential to produce the materials on-site to reduce transportation costs. In 1998, fifty emergency shelters were constructed in Rwanda and monitored to evaluate the system in practical use.
フツ族とツチ族の内戦による虐殺を逃れた200万人以上にのぼるルワンダ難民たちに仮設住宅を提供する ため、1995年の春、国連難民高等弁務官事務所(UNHCR)による取組みに関わることになった。この需要を満たすために、難民全員に支給される標準的 な4m×6mのプラスチック・シートを使った紙管によるシェルターを提案した。





PAPER PARTITION SYSTEM- Fukuoka,Japan,2005 Fujisawa,Japan,2006 避難所用 間仕切りシステム2,3- 福岡市,2005 藤沢市,2006


When the Fukuoka earthquake struck in 2005, ten years had passed since the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, the last time a seismic intensity was recorded over 6 in a large Japanese city. The main issue in the first phase at evacuation sites is the high density of refugees. Privacy is needed due to the lack of close relationships between neighbors in everyday life. Simple cardboard sheets were offered for insulation and to create a border between families. The cardboard was only used to cover the floor in early crowded times; after the population decreased, the cardboard was used to create partitions for night time privacy.
福岡県西方沖地震による被災者のために提案した避難所用の間仕 切りシステム。震度6以上の地震が政令指令都市を襲うのは、1995年阪神・淡路大震災(震度7)以来、10年ぶりであった。都市部の災害で問題となるの は、被災直後の避難所が被災者であふれ、日頃の周辺住民との結束の薄さが、避難生活を予想以上に息苦しくさせることである。避難住民の人数変化に緩やかに 対応できるよう、被災直後はハニカムボードを畳のように床だけに敷き、避難可能な人数のキャパシティを上げ、その後の避難住民の減少に伴って不必要となる 床材を再利用して腰壁状に立てて家族ごとに囲い、就寝時のプライバシーを最低限確保できるようにした
Constant revision was done whenever large earthquakes occurred in Japan, aiming to fit the needs of evacuation sites since the first attempt made in Niigata (2004). After the project in Fukuoka, wall structures that had been honeycomb boards were changed to a strut-beam structure using paper tubes that can be furnished faster and conveniently at any site, with white cloth for partitions. The joints were made of plywood, and ropes were used for braces .For flexible partitioning depending on the family size, the modularized unit dimensions were standardized at 180cm. For administration, it is impossible to forecast partition needs, so low cost and high speed were the priorities in developing this partition system.

通常、プレファブ住宅が完成するまでの数カ月間、被災者は体育館などの大空 間での雑魚寝を余儀なくされ、まったく プライバシーのない生活を送らなければならない。そこで避難所用間仕切りシステム1(新潟県中越地震復興支援)と避難所用間仕切りシステム2(福岡県西方 沖地震復興支援)に改良が重ねられた。壁部分に使用していたハニカムボードに代わり、緊急時でもより早く、より安く入手できる紙管によるフレーム式とし、 壁部分には布を使っている。紙管のジョイントは、合板を組み合わせてつくり、そこに筋交いとしてロープを掛けるという単純なシステムである。紙管の長さは 柱も梁も共通した180cmとし、家族の人数により必要なサイズに合わせられるようにモジュール化した。間仕切りシステムを事前に行政がストックしておく ことはほぼ不可能であるので、地震が起きた直後に材料が短時間に安価で用意でき、簡単に組み立てられるシステムとして開発された。


Paper partition system for evacuation facilities

 
構成部材 Materials:
柱 / Column: 紙管(大) / Paper Tube (Large)
梁 / Beam: 紙管(中) / Paper Tube (Medium)
ジョイント / Joint: 紙管(小) / Paper Tube (Small)
仕切り / Curtain: 木綿布 / White Canvas
他 / Others: 安全ピン、クリップ / Pins, Clip


HUALIN TEMPORARY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL - Chengdu, China, 2008
成都市華林小学校紙管仮設校舎 - 四川大地震復興プロジェクト


This collaborative project between Japanese and Chinese universities involved the design and construction of paper-tube-structured temporary classrooms at the elementary school struck by the Sichuan earthquake on May 2008. While most of the reconstruction assistance consisted of constructing temporary housing, we received a request from the Chengdu Chenghua District Education Bureau to rebuild the classroom buildings. These buildings had been officially designated as unusable and had been completely closed as part of the delayed reconstruction of educational facilities. We therefore designed temporary classroom buildings to be constructed using paper tubes, which are cheap, recyclable, reusable, and readily available on site. During the summer vacation, about 120 Japanese and Chinese volunteers worked together on the construction while deepening mutual understanding. We developed simple building methods and plans suited to unskilled people such as volunteers. With appropriate construction management, three buildings (nine classrooms) were completed in about forty days. These were the first buildings in China to have a paper-tube structure, and were also the first school buildings to be rebuilt in the earthquake-stricken area.

2008年5月に発生した中国四川省大地震後に、日中の大学が協働して、被災した小学校に 紙管を構造とした仮設校舎を設計・建設したプロジェクトである。地震後の復興支援が仮設住宅の建設に集中するなか、後回しにされていた文教施設の再建のた め、不適格建築の指定により立入り禁止になっていた校舎の建替えを成都市成華区教育局より依頼された。そこで、安価でかつリサイクル・リユースが可能であ り、現地調達できる紙管の利用を特徴とした仮設校舎の設計を行い、延べ120人の日本人および中国人のボランティアが夏休みを利用して両国間の理解を深め ながら協力して施工を行った。未熟練労働者であるボランティアでも建設できるようシンプルな構法や施工計画を立案し、適切なプロジェクト管理により3棟 (9教室)の校舎を約40日の工期で完成することができた。中国国内では初の紙管による建築であり、最も早く実現した被災救援の校舎である。

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